CNG Full Form, Details, History

  • Author :
  • TATA AIG Team
  • Published on :
  • 30/10/2023

The consumption of CNG is prevailing in India since it is a more sustainable source of energy. This fuel type is considered environmentally friendly due to less emission of harmful gases when it burns compared to other fuel types such as diesel, petrol, etc.

Due to so many benefits offered by CNG, such as lower cost, cleaner burning, etc., individuals prefer to use CNG vehicles. Various Indian manufacturers offer CNG alternative vehicles to Indian consumers.

In this blog post, we will find out CNG's full form, its meaning, benefits, history and properties.

What is CNG Gas Full Form?

CNG's full form is compressed natural gas. It is a natural gas that acts as a fuel type under pressure/compression.

What is the Meaning of CNG?

Compressed Natural Gas is a combination of primarily methane and hydrocarbons. It is colourless and odourless. CNG can be used for various purposes, such as generating electricity, cooking, etc.

It is used widely in liquid or gaseous form. The CNG-based vehicles run on the gaseous form of CNG stored in high-pressure containers, which act as a fuel tank for vehicles. The compressed gas is fed to the vehicle's engine, which combines with air and then burns to power up the vehicle.

History of CNG

CNG is widely used in various countries as fuel for vehicles, many industrial processes, etc. But its consumption has a long line of history.

  • Experiments with compressed natural gases began in the mid-eighteenth century.

  • In the late eighteenth century, various automobile models that used CNG fuel were developed.

  • USA developed the very first natural gas engine.

  • Various other countries started using CNG engines, such as Europe, Italy, etc., after the Second World War.

  • In the 1950s and 1960s, high-pressure storage tanks and other CNG delivery and storage innovations were developed, which contributed to the growth of CNG as a fuel.

  • Improvements in CNG transportation and storage technologies and greater environmental consciousness contributed to an additional upsurge in the use of CNG as a fuel in the 1990s and 2000s.

Properties Of Compressed Natural Gas

CNG is a safer fuel alternative. Various properties of CNG include:

Composition CNG is a composition of methane, carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane. The main composition is methane, a colourless gas that is very flammable. The other gas mixtures are small in quantity.

Emissions The other property of CNG gas is its emission, which distinguishes it from other traditional fuel types such as diesel and petrol. The compressed natural gas burns cleaner, resulting in less emission of harmful gases such as carbon, etc. Hence, it is an environmentally friendly fuel source.

Energy Density Another property of CNG which stands out from other fuel types is energy density. In comparison with petrol and diesel, the energy density of CNG is lower, which means the consumption of CNG is more to provide the same amount of energy as other fuels. That's why it is stored in high-pressure containers, making its density high.

Availability This natural gas is found in rocks beneath the earth's surface. Since CNG is a natural gas, it can easily be produced in the country and is readily available for various purposes, such as electricity generation, fuel type, etc.

Safety Although the burning of CNG produces greenhouse gases, it is a cleaner option than other energy sources like gasoline or LPG. This natural gas is lighter than air; thus, it disperses rapidly when released, making CNG safer than other fuels in a leak.

How do CNG Gas Vehicles Work?

Like any other vehicle, CNG vehicles work, but the fuel source they use to ignite the internal combustion engines is compressed natural gas. The engine of this vehicle also works in the same way as petrol or diesel-powered engines. The natural gas for CNG-powered vehicles is stored in a fuel tank or external cylinder in the back of the car.

To ignite the vehicle, the CNG cylinder or fuel tank passes the gas to the engine using a fuel pipe with a pressure regulator valve to regulate the pressure and make it compatible with the engine's requirements. The fuel reaches the combustion chamber, gets mixed with the air, and is ignited using a spark plug.

Benefits of Using Compressed Natural Gas

There are several benefits of using compressed natural gas as a fuel, which are listed below:

Cost Effective- The first benefit of using compressed natural gas as a fuel type is that it is a cost-effective solution. In a world where fuel prices are touching the sky, CNG offers alternatives to individuals to save a few bucks on fuel prices. The reason for CNG being cost-effective is it is natural gas that is found in nature.

Lower Maintenance- Another benefit of using CNG as a vehicle fuel is lower maintenance costs. Compared to traditional diesel and petrol-powered vehicles, which require regular maintenance, CNG vehicles have lower maintenance costs since the wear and tear are less.

Abundant supply- Furthermore, another reason for using compressed natural gas is its abundant supply. India's traditional crude oil for petrol and diesel is imported from overseas oil marketing companies. The imported oil comes to India and then gets refined. On the other hand, CNG is found in nature and can be domestically produced.

Better engine performance- That goes without saying that the engine is the heart of any vehicle, and if the engine works smoothly, the vehicle will work properly. CNG helps in improving the engine performance due to its cleaner burning properties. Since it doesn't pollute or dilute engine oil, it extends the lifespan of lubricating oil.

Demand for CNG Vehicles

Due to rising prices of fuel, the demand for CNG vehicles is increasing. The operating cost of CNG vehicles is relatively lower than petrol and diesel vehicles. The increase in the number of CNG petrol pumps is another reason why people are leaning towards CNG vehicles. As per the reports, around 2.21 CNG units have been sold in the first six months of 2023.

No matter whether the vehicle is powered by diesel, petrol or CNG, it is a legal requirement to have car insurance for your vehicle. Driving a CNG vehicle without insurance can lead to legal penalties and fines.

Comprehensive car insurance will provide peace of mind to vehicle owners, knowing that their financial assets are protected against unexpected expenses resulting from accidents, theft, or damage to their CNG vehicle. Further, buying car insurance online with zero paperwork is easy with Tata AIG. Further, with Tata AIG, one can easily carry out the process of car insurance renewal online from the comfort of their couch.


CNG is an eco-friendly fuel alternative that is prevailing. It is an economical fuel option. As the world transitions towards greener energy solutions, CNG remains a significant player in reducing emissions, promoting energy efficiency, and contributing to a cleaner environment.


Is CNG a gas or petrol?

CNG is an alternative to traditional liquid fuels like gasoline (petrol) and diesel. Compressed natural gas mainly consists of methane, which is a gas. This gas is usually stored in rigid containers that are typically spherical or cylindrical in shape.

Is CNG the same as LPG?

Compressed Natural Gas or CNG and Liquefied Petroleum Gas or LPG differ from each other. CNG primarily consists of methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas. It is found in natural gas reserves and is typically odourless and colourless. While LPG is a hydrocarbon gas mixture primarily containing propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10). It is typically derived from the processing of crude oil and natural gas.

Is CNG pollution-free?

It is considered a cleaner-burning fuel than traditional fossil fuels like gasoline (petrol) and diesel. However, CNG in vehicles reduces CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel; it is not entirely free from CO2 emissions.

Is a CNG car safe in an accident?

CNG vehicles have specially designed high-strength fuel tanks to withstand crashes and impacts. Further, the tanks of CNG vehicles are equipped with pressure relief devices that can release gas safely in the event of a collision or fire to prevent tank rupture.

Does a CNG car smell?

CNG natural gas is odourless and colourless. However, CNG is often odorised in practice before being distributed to vehicles and appliances. Odorisation ensures that natural gas leaks can be easily detected, as natural gas is otherwise odourless, and leaks could go unnoticed.

Share This Article
Facebook Feeds
Recent Tweets
Share This Article
Facebook Feeds
Recent Tweets

Disclaimer / TnC

Your policy is subjected to terms and conditions & inclusions and exclusions mentioned in your policy wording. Please go through the documents carefully.

Related Articles

Tata AIG Also Offers Insurance for the below products

Travel Insurance

Health Insurance

Two Wheeler Insurance

Car Insurance