List of Vitamins and Their Functions

  • Author :
  • TATA AIG Team
  • Published on :
  • 31/07/2023

The human body comprises systems that help maintain and regulate it. These systems can be further broken down into components like major organs, muscle groups, various cells, etc. If any of these components gets damaged or malfunctions, it can affect the rest of your body. Which is why it's essential to maintain your overall health consistently. This can involve following a healthy lifestyle through diet and exercise.

If you are worried about the cost of healthcare, you can buy health insurance online. This helps to cover medical care costs and can save you money in the long run. Regular doctor check-ups and taking your medication regularly if you have any chronic conditions can also help immensely. Both of these are expenses covered under health insurance plans. Tata AIG's medical insurance plans also make you eligible for claiming health insurance tax benefits.

However, another simple way to maintain your health would be through a healthy diet. In addition, simply increasing your vitamin intake can do wonders to boost your overall health. Here we have compiled a list of essential vitamins that human needs to function properly.

Types of Vitamins and Their Functions:

In total, 13 vitamins are integral to the human body. The list of essential vitamins can be divided into fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored mainly stored in the liver and other fatty tissue. In contrast, water-soluble vitamins do not stay as long in the body as fat-soluble vitamins. Here is a list of those vitamins and what they do:

1. Vitamin A

Vitamin A, a powerful antioxidant, is also known as retinal, retinol, and other carotenoids. It comes under the list of essential vitamins that are fat soluble and is essential for eyes and skin health. It is an essential vitamin present in carrots as beta-carotene and is also present in green leafy vegetables like spinach and kale and other food items like milk and eggs.

2. Vitamin B1

Better known as thiamine, Vitamin B1 comes under this complete list of vitamins as a water-soluble vitamin. Its primary function revolves around enzyme production to help break down sugar in the body. It is found in rice, cauliflower, eggs, pork, and oranges.

3. Vitamin B2

Known by its chemical name - riboflavin, Vitamin B2 is also a water-soluble vitamin. This vitamin and its functions are essential for metabolising food and maintaining proper cell regeneration and growth. Foods like cheese, eggs, bananas, milk, and beans are rich in B2.

4. Vitamin B3

Better known as Niacin and popularly in taken as an over-the-counter health supplement, vitamin B3 is needed for cell growth. People with vitamin B deficiency experience intestinal problems, poor skin health and diarrhoea.

5. Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5, or pantothenic acid, is water soluble and essential for hormone production. It is often found in yoghurt, meat, grains, and avocados. However, people must be careful not to take B5 in high doses if they are supplementing, as it can lead to several side effects.

6. Vitamin B6

Pyridoxine, or B6, is essential for producing red blood cells in the body. A deficiency of this vitamin can lead to anaemia and peripheral neuropathy (damage to the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord).

Good medical insurance can help cover the costs for treatments of these chronic conditions, as they can severely impact the quality of life of an individual. Vitamin B6 can be found in abundance in chickpeas, nuts, and bananas.

7. Vitamin B7

Popularly known as biotin, vitamin B7 taken as an over-the-counter supplement by many people. Vitamin B7 helps to metabolise proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It also helps to maintain hair, skin, and nail health.

A deficiency can lead to dermatitis and cause the inflation of the intestines. Much like all types of vitamins on this list, biotin can be found in leafy green vegetables like spinach and egg yolks, cheese, and liver.

8. Vitamin B9

Popularly known as folic acid, vitamin B9 plays a vital role in forming DNA and RNA and is a water-soluble vitamin. Pregnant women are often told to monitor their B9 levels as a deficiency can affect the foetus's nervous system. This vitamin can be found in leafy green vegetables, fruits, peas, and sunflower seeds.

9. Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12's chemical name is methylcobalamin. Like the other B vitamins and their functions, it is water soluble and helps to maintain a healthy nervous system. A deficiency can lead to several neurological problems. It is especially abundant in fish, eggs, milk and meat.

10. Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is essential for several bodily functions, like maintaining the body's immunity against disease, collagen production, and wound healing, and it helps support blood vessels. In addition, it is a powerful antioxidant that helps fight our system's free radicals. A vitamin C deficiency can lead to poor wound healing and slow tissue growth. In more severe cases, it can also lead to scurvy. It is found abundantly in citrus fruits.

11. Vitamin D

Popularly known as the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D is also known by its chemical name - ergocalciferol. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and plays a vital role in bone health. A deficiency can lead to conditions like rickets, and soft bones, that are more prone to breaking/fractures. Vitamin D is naturally synthesised in our bodies when we are exposed to sunlight, which is our primary source of this vitamin. It can also be found in fatty fish, eggs, and mushrooms.

12. Vitamin E

Also known by its chemical name tocopherol, vitamin E is a popular ingredient in most skin care products. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents oxidative stress and inflammation. A deficiency of vitamin E can lead to the loss of red blood cells.

It is an essential building block for the body in this list of vitamins and functions. Kiwis are known for their high vitamin E content. Other foods where you can find this vitamin are almonds, eggs, and leafy vegetables.

13. Vitamin K

Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting. It also goes by its chemical name - phylloquinone - a fat-soluble vitamin. People with a vitamin K deficiency often bleed excessively and have trouble healing open wounds.

They often are advised not to take blood thinners like aspirin as it can worsen this problem. It is commonly sold as a supplement but can also be found in pumpkins, figs, and green leafy vegetables.


This is a complete list of vitamins and what they do. A deficiency in any of these can lead to chronic conditions in anyone. This is why doctors and health care professionals always stress the importance of balanced nutrition in addition to getting regular check-ups.

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