Viruses and parasites are common in today's polluted and hazardous living environment. Amoebiasis, a disorder, occurs when Entamoeba histolytica or E. histolytica infects your intestines. Because your intestines and abdomen are intertwined, this illness has the potential to seriously harm your body.
The human body's big intestine is home to cosmopolitan amoebiasis. It generates cysts or eggs, which are expelled with stool from the body. Amoebiasis causes colitis and diarrhoea. Amoebiasis is an ailment brought on by a bacterium that is spread through tainted water or tainted food.
Here, we will talk about everything related to amoebiasis - its causes, treatment and so on. But before going into the details of the same, we must also make you aware of the fact that a health insurance plan from Tata AIG can help you safeguard your money by offering compensation towards your diagnosis and treatment costs.
Also, with the right medical insurance in place, you will also get several health insurance tax benefits. Additionally, you may lodge a claim on our website in just a few simple steps and use our online insurance calculator to compare the health plans.
Now, let’s get back to the central topic; amoebiasis.
What Is Amoebiasis?
Amoebic dysentery and amoebiasis are both intestinal infections. It is a protozoan disorder that is brought on by the microorganism Entamoeba histolytica. A unicellular microscopic parasite called Entamoeba histolytica can kill gut tissues after infecting both humans and animals. A housefly acts as the disease's vector and aids in the disease's rapid spread. Additionally, intestinal amoebiasis spreads through tainted food and water.
This disease is widespread around the world, although it is particularly prevalent in developing nations and tropical regions where sanitary conditions and hygiene standards are subpar. Amoebic incubation lasts between two and four weeks. In rare and complicated cases, it may also affect the liver and brain. However, in most cases, it may be cured.
Types of Amoebiasis
Amoebiasis manifests as frequent, severe diarrhoea/dysentery and bloody faeces. In addition to weight loss, fatigue, and fever, gastrointestinal symptoms are a part of chronic amoebiasis.
If the parasite spreads to other organs, such as the liver, it may result in an amoebic liver abscess, which may be accompanied by fever and stomach pain.
The following two kinds of amoebiasis are frequently observed in patients, according to health researchers:
1. Invasive amoebiasis: Multiple signs of invasive amoebiasis appear as soon as the parasites enter your body. It leads to the spread of dysentery or amoeboma in your blood, which causes extraintestinal lesions like a liver abscess.
2. Luminal amoebiasis: Almost no clinical symptoms or indicators are seen in this kind of amoebiasis. If parasites infiltrate your mucosa, you could get this syndrome.
Who is Susceptible to Amoebiasis?
Amebiasis is widespread in tropical regions with poor sanitation. The Indian subcontinent, several regions of Central and South America, Mexico, and some regions of Africa are where it is most prevalent. In the United States, it's not very common.
The highest risk group for amebiasis includes:
Travellers who have visited tropical regions with inadequate sanitation.
Immigration populations from tropical nations with poor sanitary conditions.
Individuals who occupy facilities with poor hygienic conditions, such as prisons.
Males who have relationships with other men.
Individuals with weakened immune systems and other health issues.
A single-celled protozoan called E. histolytica often gets into a person's system when they consume cysts in food or drink. It may also come into touch with faeces and then enter the body directly.
The parasite's relatively dormant cysts can survive for several months in the environment or soil where they were dispersed in faeces. The small cysts can be found in water, fertiliser, or soil that has come into contact with tainted excrement.
When handling or preparing food, food handlers are at risk of spreading cysts. Additionally, transmission is possible during colonic irrigation, oral-anal sex, and anal intercourse.
Cysts that enter the body settle in the digestive system. The parasite's invasive, active form, known as a trophozoite, is then released. The parasites multiply in the gastrointestinal system before moving to the large intestine. They have the ability to tunnel into the colon or intestinal wall there.
The parasite spreads most frequently in the following circumstances:**
Consuming food or liquids that have been in contact with contaminated faeces
By using fertiliser derived from human waste
Mode of transmission of amoebiasis - Touch between two people directly (mainly from the mouth or rectal area of an infected person)
In addition, several of the important causes of amoebiasis can be attributed to the risk factors listed below.
Excessive alcoholic beverage use
Malnutrition and poor eating habits
A recent visit to a tropical location
Intake of corticosteroid medications weakens the immune system and could be a causative agent of amoebiasis.
Symptoms of Amoebiasis
Only 10 to 20 per cent of those with amoebiasis get sick from it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Amoebiasis can cause colitis, bloody diarrhoea, and tissue damage, yet the majority of people don't have any symptoms. The affected person can then transmit the illness to others by excreting infected faeces that contain fresh cysts.
When symptoms do materialise, they typically do so one to four weeks after ingesting the cysts. At this point, the symptoms are typically minor and include loose stools and cramping in the stomach.
The trophozoites may break the intestinal walls, enter the bloodstream, and go to multiple internal organs in a rare illness consequence. The liver is where they most frequently end up, but they can also infect the heart, lungs, brain, or other organs.
An internal organ invasion by trophozoites may result in -
Abscesses and infections
Severe illness or even death
Amebic dysentery can be brought on if the parasite penetrates the lining of the intestine. A more deadly form of amebiasis, amebic dysentery is characterised by frequent, bloody and watery faeces as well as excruciating stomach pain.
Fulminant necrotizing amoebic colitis, which can damage bowel tissue and result in intestinal perforation and peritonitis, is another extremely uncommon consequence.
The parasite frequently settles in the liver, where it can result in an amebic liver abscess, a collection of pus. Fever and discomfort in the upper-right portion of the abdomen are symptoms.
Diagnosis of Amoebiasis
When you experience the aforementioned symptoms and go to the doctor for treatment, amoebiasis will be diagnosed. Doctors typically use the following techniques to do this.
- Stool test: Three samples of stool from various days should be examined by the doctor. Daily fluctuations in the number of amoebas make it difficult to diagnose the illness from a single sample.
- Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): E. histolytica may not be present in your stool if you have an amoebic liver abscess, according to an ELISA test. To do this, medical professionals frequently use ELISA to find these antigens in your body.
- CT scan or ultrasound: If the parasites in your body have spread outside of the colon, they are no longer visible in your stool. In these situations, doctors must perform CT scans or ultrasounds to examine your liver lesions.
- Needle aspiration: If the doctors discover lesions, they may use a needle to aspirate fluid from your body to look for liver abscesses.
- Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test: In some circumstances, doctors may collect a blood sample or a nasal swab in order to perform a PCR test. They can use it to differentiate between E. histolytica and other illnesses in your body.
You must have a firm understanding of the definition, aetiology, and symptoms of amoebiasis by this point. You must now be interested in amoebiasis prevention. You should be aware that maintaining good hygiene is the first step in preventing this illness. You can avoid developing amoebiasis if you adhere to the guidelines listed below.
Avoid eating fruits that shopkeepers have peeled by washing your hands thoroughly with soap before handling food or after using the restroom.
Before preparing or consuming fruits and vegetables, carefully wash them.
Sipped from sealed bottles of soft drinks and water
Avoid ice cubes, drinks from the fountain, and meals from street vendors.
Before drinking, bring tap water to a minimum one-hour boil.
Consume unpasteurised dairy products sparingly.
Amoebiasis can be prevented by practising good cleanliness. Generally speaking, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water before handling food and after using the restroom.
Whether you show symptoms or not, amebiasis needs to be treated if tests reveal the presence of E. histolytica.
Treatment is typically unnecessary if testing only reveals E. dispar, another amoeba that might result in amebiasis because it is non-pathogenic.
The following is typically part of the treatment:
If you exhibit symptoms, you should take the antiamoebic medication metronidazole (Flagyl). After completing the 10-day course, you may switch to an amoebiasis antibiotic like diloxanide furoate or paromomycin.
If you require it, your doctor may also recommend medicine to reduce nausea.
Antibiotics may be used to treat you if you don't exhibit any symptoms.
The treatment must target parasites and other malicious organisms in your intestinal tissues.
The patient may require surgery if the colon or peritoneal tissues are perforated.
Metronidazole, a medication with systemic activity, is used to treat people with amoebiasis symptoms. Luminal amoebicide treatment is also necessary to eradicate any living parasite or organism that may be present inside the colon. Paromomycin is a medication used to treat luminal infection. Luminal amoebicide is administered to asymptomatic individuals to reduce the possibility of transmission.
What is the Prognosis for Those Who Have Amoebiasis?
Treatment for amoebiasis often works effectively, and it should go away in approximately 2 weeks.
As long as you receive the right medical care, your prognosis is still good, even if the parasite emerges in your internal tissues or organs in a more severe instance.
Amoebiasis can be fatal if it is not treated, though.
How Can a Health Insurance Policy Help?
By solely consuming clear liquids, such as water, juice, tea, and oral rehydrating or electrolyte treatments, you can avoid developing amoebiasis. It's critical to stay hydrated by drinking frequently. In cases of nausea, drinking small amounts frequently is preferred. Avoid solid foods since they may give you cramps. The best items to eat when recovering are light soups, bread, rice, and eggs. Is hospitalisation required for amoebic dysentery? Amoebiasis is typically treatable as an outpatient condition. Hospitalisation is necessary for severe instances involving the liver or other organs.
The hospitalisation costs can be sky-high, keeping in mind the current scenario and medical conditions in the country. Hence, in order to safeguard your pockets and keep your savings safe, it’s vital to have robust health insurance in place.
Comparing, purchasing, and renewing insurance plans on Tata AIG is remarkably simple and straightforward. You may simply assess and evaluate a number of health insurance plans, the given sum insured, the medical expenses covered, and the applicable premium, thanks to the availability of plan brochures online, and then choose the one you think is most appropriate for you.
Our network hospitals have a widespread reach. You can file claims without spending money thanks to our affiliations with more than 7200 hospitals around the nation. If you let us know about the therapy a few days beforehand, or even right away if it's an emergency, we'll take care of paying the bill.
How to Buy Tata AIG’s Health Insurance Policy
There are two ways to buy health insurance plans from Tata AIG - online and offline.
Follow these steps to purchase a health insurance plan online-
Visit Tata AIG’s website and determine if you wish to buy a plan for your parents, children, spouse or yourself.
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Choose the plan you think is best for you.
Attach the necessary documents with the application form.
Submit them and make the payment.
After this, you will receive your policy in the mail post verifications in a few days.
As you can see from this document, amoebiasis may seem like a simple ailment, but if left untreated, it can lead to major complications and consequences. The primary culprit is a parasite called E. histolytica, which infects your colon and results in very serious digestive-related symptoms. In order to prevent this illness, it is advised to maintain a high quality of hygiene and a balanced diet.
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Frequently Asked Question
How does the disease amoebiasis spread, and how does a person contract it?
When infected individuals do not properly dispose of their excrement or clean their hands after using the restroom, amoebiasis is spread by them. The parasites can then be transmitted to other people's food and potentially contaminated surfaces via houseflies and contaminated hands. Our hands may become contaminated when changing an infant's diaper who is ill. Oral-anal contact can also sexually transmit this illness.
How can amoebiasis be treated?
To treat amoebiasis, a doctor may prescribe medicines like metronidazole or tinidazole. Additional therapies could be needed to remove the cysts.
How long could amoebiasis treatment take?
If the right medication is available, amoebiasis can be healed in two to three weeks.