Scientific Names of Vitamins and their sources

  • Author :
  • TATA AIG Team
  • Published on :
  • 08/10/2023

Living a healthy lifestyle without any major health risks is one of the significant concerns among human beings. To have a healthy lifestyle means you need to listen to what your body tells you. When fulfilling body needs, you should consume nutrients and vitamins that keep your body flourishing and energised.

The human body acquires vitamins from food to maintain wellness and health goals. Everyone requires a defined amount of vitamins and supplements based on their physique. An abundance or deficiency of vitamins can cause various health ailments.

With that said, you must be very careful about your vitamin intake. Many health risks may arise from vitamin deficiency requiring serious medical attention. In any such case, having health insurance in order can be of great help. A medical insurance plan is a shield in any health emergency, whether a minor or critical illness.

Let's return to the scientific name of all vitamins without further ado.

What are Vitamins?

Vitamins are organic biological compounds that living organisms need to function correctly. It is an integral part of our dietary needs and should be consumed adequately.

Most people have this misconception that to function correctly, we need more vitamins and minerals; therefore, start taking them in massive amounts. However, that will harm the body since it is a micronutrient; it should be consumed in definite proportions.

The human body is incapable of storing and producing vitamin components; therefore, we take it from our food.

Types of Vitamins

Vitamins are categorised into two categories: water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins.

Fat-soluble vitamins are collected or stored in the liver and the body's fatty tissues. The vitamins in this category are Vitamin A, D, E and K. The best sources of fat-soluble vitamins are dairy products, meat, eggs and plant sources such as seeds and nuts. We will understand all about these vitamins with scientific names later in this blog.

Water-soluble vitamins are easily dissolved in water and flushed out if consumed excessively. The vitamins that come under this category are Vitamin B1, B3, B5, B2, B6, B7, B9, B12 and C. These vitamin sources are vegetables, fruits and whole grains.

Scientific Name of All Vitamins and Their Sources

The human body needs 13 types of vitamins to function properly. These vitamins are found in meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, etc. Let's know more about the scientific names of all vitamins.

Common Name Scientific Name Major Source
Vitamin A Retinol Yellow fruits, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, etc
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Dates, cashew nuts, milk, potatoes, etc.
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Yoghurt, mushrooms, dates, popcorn, etc.
Vitamin B3 Niacin Meat, guava, eggs, peanuts, peas, etc.
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid Peanuts, egg yolk, avocado, legumes, etc.
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine Chicken, soya beans, cereals, eggs, etc.
Vitamin B7 Biotin Raspberries, salmon, egg yolk, milk, cauliflowers, etc.
Vitamin B9 Folic acid Green leafy vegetables, citrus fruits, legumes, etc
Vitamin B12 Cobalamins Poultry products, milk, meat, fish, etc.
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid Orange, goat milk, chestnuts, etc.
Vitamin D Calciferol Egg yolk, chicken, fisk, cod liver oil, etc.
Vitamin E Tocopherol Potatoes, Guava, mangoes, nuts, etc.
Vitamin K Phytonadione Chestnuts, lamb meat, broccoli, mangoes, etc.

A Detailed Information on Vitamins

The preceding table gives an overview of vitamins and their names. It also talks about the vitamin sources. But if you want to know more about these common yet essential vitamins and how they function, keep reading this section.

Vitamin A- Vitamin A scientific name is retinol, which comes under the fat-soluble vitamin category. It is also called beta-carotene or retinoic. The dietary requirement for retinol in the human body is 900 and 700 μg for men and women. It is usually found in dark-coloured vegetables and fruits.

However, one can acquire from specific animal sources as well. Plant-based fruits such as papayas, mangoes, etc. and vegetables such as pumpkin, spinach, carrots, kale, broccoli, sweet potato and more are rich in Vitamin A.

Other than this, to acquire Vitamin A, you can eat tomatoes, cereals, cod liver oil, sausage, milk, fish oil, etc. Vitamin A or Retinoic acid is vital for embryonic development and proper immune system functioning. Vitamin A deficiency leads to diseases such as cystic fibrosis, dry skin, Xerophthalmia, growth retardation and more.

Vitamin B1- The scientific name of Vitamin B1 is thiamine. It comes under the water-soluble vitamin category. Vitamin B1 is essential for heart, nerve and muscle function. It also plays an integral part in glucose metabolism in the human body.

Since these vitamins are easily carried in the bloodstream, excessive or unused vitamin B1 are flushed out through urine. It can only be stored for a short duration in the body. Vitamin B1 also regulates the blood level. The suggested intake for thiamine is 1.2 mg/day and 1.1 mg/day for men and women. But, for pregnant ladies, it is 1.4 mg/day.

The significant sources of vitamin B1 are oranges, cauliflower, potatoes, asparagus and all. Thiamine deficiency in the body can lead to diseases like beriberi. The symptoms of vitamin B1 deficiency are weight loss, cardiac symptoms and more.

Vitamin B2- The scientific name of Vitamin B2 is riboflavin. It is a water-soluble vitamin essential for breaking down food and absorbing nutrients. It maintains the tissues in the body. This vitamin is stored in the small intestine.

The function of riboflavin is to break down nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates and fats to maintain energy levels. The acquired quantity for Vitamin B2 is 1.3 milligrams/day and 1.1 milligrams/day for men and women.

The major sources of vitamin B2 are grains, avocados, Brussels sprouts, mushrooms, nuts, sweet potatoes, sage and more. The deficiency of Vitamin B2 can cause improper digestion. The colour of urine identifies the proper functioning of riboflavin.

If the urine is yellow, this means the body is absorbing the vitamins. Vitamin B2 deficiency can lead to liver disease, diarrhoea, and alcoholism.

Vitamin B3- This water-soluble vitamin's scientific name is niacin. It is an essential coenzyme, and 400 enzymes depend on nicotinic acid or nicotinamide. Niacin vitamin has some significant functions in the human body, such as converting nutrients into energy, assisting in DNA formation and repairing DNA.

The significant sources of niacin are bananas, legumes, seeds, red meat, brown rice and more. Since it is found in most food products, niacin deficiency is very rare. However, the deficiency of Vitamin B3 can lead to a disease called pellagra, which causes constipation, diarrhoea, rashes on the skin, etc.

The significant symptoms of niacin deficiency are headache, memory loss, fatigue, depression and hallucinations.

Vitamin B5- Another element in the vitamin scientific name list is Vitamin B5, also known as pantothenic acid. This water-soluble vitamin function actively breaks down the food we intake and converts it into energy.

It can easily be found in animal and plant-based products such as egg yolk and broccoli, fish, chicken, yoghurt, legumes, mushrooms, etc. The suggested intake of Vitamin B5 is 6 mg/day for pregnant ladies and 7 mg/day for lactating women.

Most food products have vitamin B5, making deficiency very rare. However, some symptoms of vitamin B5 deficiency are restlessness, numbness, irritability, headache and muscle cramps.

Vitamin B6- Another vitamin in our list is Vitamin B6, which is also called pyridoxine. This water-soluble vitamin contains Pyridoxal 5 phosphate (PLP). It is the essential form of coenzyme in the body.

Almost a hundred enzymes are needed to break down carbohydrates and protein to maintain normal homocysteine. The suggested intake of Vitamin B6 is 1.3 mg in both women and men. The primary food sources of pyridoxine are salmon, tuna, poultry, chickpeas, red meat, cantaloupe, papaya, oranges and bananas.

The deficiency of Vitamin B6 causes scalp and skin conditions. Further, other diseases like Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease are also caused by Vitamin B6.

Vitamin B7- In vitamins and their names, another element we have is Vitamin B7, which is known as biotin. This water-soluble vitamin helps enzymes break down protein, carbohydrates and fats we acquire from food.

The function of Vitamin B7 is cell signalling, histone modification and regulation of genes. The broken biotin from food is usually absorbed in the liver and small intestine. The proper amount of biotin intake is 30 mcg for women and men.

The significant sources of biotin are cheese, banana, oatmeal, almond, broccoli, spinach and more. Vitamin B7 deficiency can lead to problems like skin rashes, brittle nails and hair loss. Some other symptoms of biotin deficiency are ataxia, weak immune system, depression, hallucination and more.

Vitamin B9- Another water-soluble vitamin is Vitamin B9, also called folic acid. It is an essential element that assists in forming RNA and DNA. Folic acid is necessary for the breakdown of homocysteine, which is a toxic amino acid that can affect our body if present in excessive quantities.

Further, the other functioning of folic acid is foetus development and formation of RBC. The dietary allowance for folic acid is 200 to 180 µg/day. It can be easily found in broccoli, chickpeas, spring greens, spinach, organ meat and more.

Folic acid deficiency can lead to unhealthy blood cells, infertility, cardiovascular disease and depression.

Vitamin B12- Vitamin B12 scientific name is cobalamin. This water-soluble vitamin is derived mainly from animal sources. CobalaminCobalamin works as an enzyme cofactor. The glycoprotein generated in the stomach by parietal cells assists in absorbing cobalamin.

The absorbed Vitamin B12 helps synthesise fatty acids, DNA and myelin. It is also crucial for the formation of RBC.

Vitamin B12 is generally stored in the liver. The significant cobalamin sources are meat, dairy products and eggs. Dietary insufficiency or improper digestion can lead to Vitamin B12 deficiency. Its deficiency can lead to neurological issues.

Vitamin C- The scientific name of Vitamin C is ascorbic acid. This water-soluble vitamin is generally found in citrus fruits. This vitamin should be consumed daily as it can be excreted through urine if consumed in large amounts.

It acts as an antioxidant and assists in healing all kinds of infections. It protects against the invasion of elements that can cause infection in our body by finding free radicals. Further, it also assists in the production of collagen in the body.

The required Vitamin C intake is 90 mg for men and 75 mg for women. The primary sources of ascorbic acid are oranges, potatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and strawberries. Scurvy is caused by Vitamin C deficiency.

Vitamin D- In the list of vitamin scientific names and diseases associated with it, we will now discuss Vitamin D, known as calciferol. It is one of the crucial vitamins that our body requires. To maintain healthy bones and teeth, calciferol is needed.

Most of our body's Vitamin D needs are fulfilled by exposure to sunlight. Further, we can also get vitamin D from dietary sources such as orange juice, organ meat, swordfish, dairy products, cod liver oil and tuna fish.

Vitamin D deficiency in adults can cause osteomalacia, leading to fracture risk. However, in children, it can cause rickets and deformed bone formation.

Vitamin E- Another fat-soluble vitamin is E, which is also known as Tocopherol. It is obtained in many forms, but the body only requires alpha-tocopherol. The significant function of Vitamin E is to scavenge free radicals.

These free radicals can cause various chronic illnesses, such as cancer. vitamin E acts as an antioxidant that allows proper immune system functioning. It also prevents the formation of clots in arteries. The proper intake of vitamin E is 15 mg in both men and women.

The significant sources of vitamin E are peanut, almond, mango, spinach, avocado, sunflower seeds and oil, etc. Vitamin E deficiency can cause vision loss, muscle damage and weakness.

Vitamin K- Lastly, Vitamin K scientific name is Phytonadione. It is a fat-soluble vitamin and is categorised into two types: phylloquinone and menaquinones. This vitamin is necessary for blood clotting. It works with prothrombin protein for the blood clotting process.

Further, another protein named osteocalcin also requires vitamin K to form healthy bones. The necessary intake of Vitamin K in males is 120 mcg/day, and for females, it is 90 mcg/day. The significant sources of vitamin K are vegetable oil, green leafy vegetables, cheese, eggs, meat, blueberries and more.

Vitamin K deficiency leads to cardiovascular diseases, poor bones, and osteoporosis.

Benefits of Vitamins in Our Body

Vitamins are essential for the human body to function correctly. Some of the prominent benefits of vitamins in our body are:

Supports Immunity- The immune system is an essential part of the body to function properly. It entirely depends on what we intake in our day-to-day life. Vitamin C is the best pal of the immune system. It helps our body from damage caused by oxidative stress. It works as an antioxidant and safeguards our cells. Further, Vitamin E and D also assist in strengthening immunity.

Strong Bones- We all know that calcium is essential for healthy bones, but most of us don't know about the benefits vitamins bring to the table. Vitamin D is essential for calcium to do its job. Not only this, vitamin D is also produced by the skin due to sunlight exposure, but using sunscreen and other things works as a barrier for Vitamin D production.

Healthy Metabolism- Vitamin B, such as folate, biotin, thiamin, riboflavin, B12 and B6, supports healthy metabolism by collaborating with enzymes. These enzymes work in the breakdown of carbohydrates, protein and fat.

Healthier Skin and Hair- Another benefit of vitamins is they promote healthier hair and skin. Vitamin E, C and A helps people dealing with skin conditions such as dry skin, rashes, acne and all. Further, for hair problems such as split ends and thin air, vitamin C and B3 are the best choices.

Improved Eyesight- Our day-to-day activity includes using screens such as laptops and mobile devices for different purposes, which affects eyesight. Consumption of vitamin supplements has significant benefits on eyesight. Vitamins C, A and E are beneficial for the eyes.

How to Get The Vitamin Your Body Needs?

Having healthy eating habits is essential for getting proper vitamin intake. Here is how you can maintain a healthy balance of vitamins in your body.

Embrace a mixed diet with both plant- and animal-based products rich in vitamins.

While purchasing packaged food, check the food labels. Always go with the product that has high vitamins and minerals.

While dining out, eating food like vegetable fajitas, fresh salads, baked potatoes, etc., can help you stay on track for vitamin needs.

Vegetarians can curate a diet plan that includes plant-based vitamin supplements. Kale, dried beans, nuts, etc., are rich in vitamins and minerals.

Vitamin B12 is a critical vitamin that is mainly found in animal products like meat, but vegetarians can get it from dairy products and fortified cereals. Those who are vegans need to take vitamin supplements.

Since vitamin deficiency can lead to various health issues, it is advised to take vitamin supplements. However, it should be consumed in proper quantity. The two terms that are necessary to understand when you start taking supplements.

RDA- RDA is the recommended dietary allowance, which means the quantity of consumption of vitamins. The RDA restrictions are different for men, women and children.

UL- Another term is UL, which stands for tolerable upper intake level. It is the highest daily range of vitamin and mineral intake without the risk of excessive consumption or intoxication.

When you are consuming supplements, always verify this range to avoid any further problems.

When to Seek Professional Advice?

It is not like that; vitamins should be consumed proportionately. If you consume too much of vitamin, it can lead to severe issues such as:

  • High consumption of vitamin C can lead to diarrhoea.

  • As per the sources, high dosage of vitamin E is a reason for early deaths.

  • The high amount of folate can hide Vitamin B12 deficiency.

  • Nerve damage risks are associated with a high intake of vitamin B6.

Various issues like skin and bone disorders, liver issues, congenital disabilities, etc can happen due to high doses of Vitamin A.

Considering all this, seeking professional medical advice while consuming supplements is always best. If you are advised for vitamin supplements, go with a dietician with experience working with a doctor to plan your dietary chart. Further, if you face any issues while taking a supplement, visit the doctor immediately.

To add to that, medical procedures can be expensive, so if you do not have a health insurance plan yet, it is time you get one. One of the major benefits of health insurance is it saves us from financial crises.

We at Tata AIG offer a medical insurance plan that caters to different medical needs. From OPD to newborn cover, we offer a wide range of medical coverage.


That's all! Here, we have listed the vitamins and scientific names. For a healthy lifestyle and functioning, vitamins are necessary. Having vitamins as part of your dietary needs can improve your overall well-being. However, it should be consumed in adequate quantities. Consuming too much can cause toxicity, or consuming too less can lead to deficiency.

With that being said, be mindful about what you eat, and always consult a doctor or dietician for a diet plan


What is vitamin Z for?

Vitamin Z is a tablet that contains multivitamins, antioxidants and multiple minerals. It is used to cover the deficiency of zinc. It contains all the substances that our body requires to function correctly.

Why do vitamins have letter names?

All the vitamins have letters in their names based on the order of their discovery. The only exception was vitamin K, which was taken from "Coagulation" by researcher Henrik Dam.

What are the Sources of Vitamin C?

Vitamin C's scientific name is ascorbic acid, mainly found in grapefruit, oranges, goat milk, strawberries, potatoes, etc.

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